Islamic studies degree : Women's studies degree : After bachelors degree
Islamic Studies Degree
- Islamic studies is an ambiguous term with one connotation in a traditional near-Eastern context and another in a Western context.
- academic degree: an award conferred by a college or university signifying that the recipient has satisfactorily completed a course of study; “he earned his degree at Princeton summa cum laude”
- A unit of measurement of angles, one three-hundred-and-sixtieth of the circumference of a circle
- a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process; “a remarkable degree of frankness”; “at what stage are the social sciences?”
- a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality; “a moderate grade of intelligence”; “a high level of care is required”; “it is all a matter of degree”
- A stage in a scale or series, in particular
- The amount, level, or extent to which something happens or is present
islamic studies degree – Moorish Circle
My Adorable Teacher: Dr. Kadivar
"The principle of Velayat e Faqih is neither intuitively obvious, nor rationally necessary. It is neither a requirement of religion (Din) nor a necessity for denomination (Mazhab). It is neither a part of Shiite general principles (Osoul), nor a component of detailed observances (Forou’) It is, by near consensus of Shiite Ulama, nothing more than a jurisprudential minor hypothesis."
Mohsen Kadivar (???? ?????, born June 7, 1959) is an Iranian Islamic philosopher, Shia cleric and activist.
After completing his primary and secondary education in Shiraz, Mohsen Kadivar was admitted into electronic engineering at Shiraz University in 1977. During this time, Kadivar became active politically and was arrested in May 1978 in Shiraz because of his political beliefs. He switched his focus to religious education and began attending Shiraz Seminary in 1980. He moved to Qom in 1981 to pursue his studies in fiqh and philosophy. In Qom, he was taught by prominent teachers like Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri. Kadivar graduated with a degree in ijtihad in 1997. Then he went on to get his PhD in Islamic philosophy and theology from Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran in 1999.
Kadivar started his career as a teacher teaching fiqh and Islamic philosophy at Qom Seminary. Later he began teaching Islamic philosophy and theology at Imam Sadegh University, Mofid University, and Shahid Beheshti University. Currently, he is a faculty member of the Department of Philosophy at Tarbiat Modares University.
Kadivar has been writing extensively in various Iranian journals and he has 100 articles to his name. He has published twelve books including the Theories of State in Shiite Fiqh, which has been translated into Arabic. He is also a prominent critic of the Islamic Republic system in Iran. Because of his criticisms, he was arrested by the government of Iran and was sentenced to 18 months at Evin Prison, Tehran. He was released on July 17, 2000. Currently, he is active within the various reform movements of Iran.
Research works and contributions
Of nine published books of Kadivar, four are on political theology. Of these, three comprise a trilogy: The first volume of the trilogy, entitled "The Theories of State in the Shiite Jurisprudence" (Nazarrieh haye Doulat dar Figh’h e Shi’eh) encompasses a broad typology of religious opinions on the desired or permissible types of government in Shiite theology. Every single instance in this typology is either proposed or endorsed by the highest authorities in Shiite jurisprudence. Here is a summary of this typology:
A. Theories of State based on Immediate Divine Legitimacy Four theocratic types, in chronological order:
1. "Appointed Mandate of Jurisconsult" in Religious Matters (Shari’at) along with the Monarchic Mandate of Muslim Potentates in Secular Matters (Saltanat E Mashrou’eh) Advocates: Mohammad Bagher Majlesi, Mirza ye Ghomi, Seyed e Kashfi, Sheikh Fadl ollah Nouri, Ayatollah Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi.
2. "General Appointed Mandate of Jurissonsults" (Velayat E Entesabi Ye Ammeh) Advocates: Molla Ahmad Naraghi, Sheikh Mohammad Hassan Najafi (Saheb Javaher) Ayatollahs Borujerdi,Golpayegani, Khomeini, (before the revolution)
3. "General Appointed Mandate of the Council of the ‘Sources of Imitation’ " (Velayat E Entesabi Ye Ammeh Ye Shora Ye Marje’eh Taghlid) Advocates: Ayatollahs: Javadi Amoli, Beheshti, Taheri Khorram Abadi
4. "Absolute Appointed Mandate of Jurisconsult" (Velayat e Entesabi ye Motlaghe ye Faghihan) Advocate: Ayatollah Khomeini (after revolution)
B. Theories of State Based on Divine-popular Legitimacy Five democratic types, in chronological order:
5. "Constitutional State" (with the permission and supervision of Jurisprudents) (Dowlat e Mashrouteh) Advocates: Sheikh Esma’il Mahllati, Ayatollahs: Mazandarani, Tehrani, Tabataba’i, Khorasani, Na’ini
6. "Popular Stewardship along with Clerical Oversight" (Khelafat e Mardom ba Nezarat e Marjaiat) Advocate: Ayatollah Mohammad Bagher Sadr
7. "Elective Limited Mandate of Jurisprudents" (Velayat e Entekhabi ye Moghayyadeh ye Faghih) Advocate: Ayatollahs Motahhari, Montazeri
8. "Islamic elective State" (Dowlat e Entekhabi ye Eslami) Advocate: Ayatollah Mohammad Bagher Sadr
9. "Collective Government by Proxy" (Vekalat e Malekan e Shakhsi ye Mosha)" Advocate: Ayatollah Mehdi Ha’eri Yazdi
The significance of this typology in the context of the contemporary Iranian political discourse cannot be overestimated. Shiite political theology, which the ruling clerics present as a monolith, an obelisk on which the hieroglyph of absolute mandate of the jurisconsult "Velayat e Motlaghe ye Faghih" is etched, turns into a beguiling prism in Kadivar’s nimble hands, reflecting no less than nine distinct possible forms of gov
And I don’t want to know what the potter will make from my limbs
But I am very anxious that the potter makes a sotak (whistle) out of my throat’s soil.
Then a playful child can blow strongly into my throat – continuously –
So that it disturbs the sleep of those lethargic people
And each moment breaks the silence of my death."
Ali Shariati (Farsi: ??? ??????) (November 23, 1933 in Kahak – 1977 in Southampton, England) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist, who focused on the sociology of religion. He is held as one of the most influential Iranian intellectuals of the 20th century and has been called the ‘ideologue of the Iranian Revolution’.
Ali Shariati was born in 1933 in Kahak (a village in Mazinan), a suburb of Sabzevar, found in northeastern Iran. His father, Mohammad-Taqi, was a teacher and Islamic scholar, who opened in 1947 the ‘Centre for the Propagation of Islamic Truths’ in Mashhad, in the province of Khorasan, a social Islamic forum which became embroiled in the oil nationalisation movement of the 1950s.
In his years at the Teacher’s Training College in Mashhad, Shariati came into contact with young people who were from the less privileged economic classes of the society, and for the first time saw the poverty and hardship that existed in Iran during that period. At the same time he was exposed to many aspects of Western philosophical and political thought. He attempted to explain and provide solutions for the problems faced by Muslim societies through traditional Islamic principles interwoven with and understood from the point of view of modern sociology and philosophy. His articles from this period for the Mashhad daily newspaper, Khorasan, display his developing eclecticism and acquaintance with the ideas of modern Islamic and extra-Islamic thinkers such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Iqbal, Sigmund Freud and Alexis Carrel.
In 1952 he became a high-school teacher and founded the Islamic Students’ Association, which led to his arrest after a demonstration. In 1953, the year of Mossadeq’s overthrow, he became a member of the National Resistance Movement. He received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Mashhad in 1955. In 1957 he was arrested again by the police, along with 16 other members of the National Resistance Movement.
Ali Shariati then managed to obtain a scholarship for France, where he continued his graduate studies at the Sorbonne University. There he was considered a brilliant student and elected best student in letters in 1958. He worked towards earning his doctorate in sociology, leaving Paris before he was able to complete his studies in 1964. During this period in Paris, Shariati started collaborating with the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) in 1959. The next year, he began to read Frantz Fanon and translated an anthology of his work into Persian. Shariati would introduce Fanon’s thought into Iranian revolutionary emigree circles. He was arrested in Paris during a demonstration in honour of Patrice Lumumba, on January 17, 1961.
The same year he joined Ebrahim Yazdi, Mostafa Chamran and Sadegh Qotbzadeh in founding the Freedom Movement of Iran abroad. In 1962 he continued studying sociology and history of religions, and followed the courses of Islamic scholar Louis Massignon, Jacques Berque and the sociologist Georges Gurvitch. He also came to know the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre that same year, and published in Iran Jalal Al-e Ahmad’s book Gharbzadegi (or Occidentosis) .
He then returned to Iran in 1964 where he was arrested and imprisoned for engaging in subversive political activities while in France. He was released after a few weeks, at which point he began teaching at the University of Mashhad.
Dr Shariati then went to Tehran where he began lecturing at the Hosseiniye Ershad Institute. These lectures proved to be hugely popular among his students and were spread by word of mouth throughout all economic sectors of the society, including the middle and upper classes where interest in Shariati’s teachings began to grow immensely.
Shariati’s continued success again aroused the interest of the government, which arrested him, as well as many of his students. Widespread pressure from the populace and an international outcry eventually led to his release after eighteen months in solitary confinement, and he was released on March 20, 1975.
Shariati was allowed to leave the country for England. He died three weeks later in a Southampton hospital.
Shariati’s death is the subject of some controversy. While the official autopsy indicated a heart attack as the cause of death, there is a degree of consensus that he was assassinated. However, the identification of the assassin varies. SAVAK, the Shah’s secret police, is frequently mentioned as the likely suspect. However, some counter that Islamist hard-liners are to blame, on the basis of similar treatment of Ahmad Kasravi.
islamic studies degree
“The book’s brilliant thesis is that the Western authors need a social movement theory-paradigm to reveal the dynamics of the ongoing political and cultural movements in the Muslim world…. the book is a very good contribution to Islamism.” — M. A. Khan, Emory University, Choice, July 2004